Our People

Senior Research Fellow
Dr Brantley LIDDLE 

Research Interests
Research Highlights

Dr. Brantley Liddle joined ESI in 2016. Most recently, he was Vice President/Chief of Research/Special Advisor at the Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre in Tokyo. Prior to that posting, he led the energy/environment-economic modeling research program at the Centre for Strategic Economic Studies at Victoria University in Melbourne, Australia as a senior research fellow. Earlier, he had a postdoctoral fellowship in the population-environment-economy research group at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany; and he served as an interdisciplinary economist at the US Department of Energy, where he worked on the National Energy Modeling System.

 Dr. Liddle’s areas of research interest/expertise include population change and the macro environment; energy and the macro economy; and transport and energy consumption. He earned an interdisciplinary Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Sloan School of Management and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. He was among the first both to write a sustainability-focused dissertation and effectively to complete a Ph.D. in systems engineering at MIT. Dr. Liddle received a combined bachelor of science and arts in civil engineering and political science from Brown University.

 Google Scholar Citations: https://scholar.google.com.au/citations?user=NVmMD5wAAAAJ&hl

  • Energy economics and policy
  • Energy and Climate Change
  • Economic Growth and Energy/Environment
  • Transport and Energy/Environment
  • Population and Energy/Environment
Refereed Journal Articles

  1. Liddle, B. & Messinis, G.  Revisiting carbon Kuznets curves with endogenous breaks modeling: Evidence of decoupling and saturation (but few inverted-Us) for individual OECD countries. Forthcoming at Empirical Economics.
  3.  Parker, S. & Liddle, B. 2016. Economy-wide and Manufacturing Energy Productivity Transition Paths and Club Convergence for OECD and Non-OECD Countries. Forthcoming at Energy Economics.
  5. Parker, S. & Liddle, B. 2016. Energy efficiency in the manufacturing sector of the OECD: Analysis of price elasticities. Energy Economics, Vol. 58, pp. 38-45.
  7. Liddle, B. & Messinis, G. 2015. Revisiting sulfur Kuznets curves with endogenous breaks modeling: Substantial evidence of inverted-Us/Vs for individual OECD countries. Economic Modelling, Vol. 49, pp. 278-285.
  9. Liddle, B. & Lung, S. 2015. The Endogeneity of OECD Gasoline Taxes: Evidence from Pair-wise, Heterogeneous Panel Long-run Causality Tests. Transportation Research A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 73, pp. 31-38.
  11. Liddle, B. & Lung, S. 2015. Revisiting Energy Consumption and GDP Causality: Importance of A Priori Hypothesis Testing, Disaggregated Data, and Heterogeneous Panels. Applied Energy, Vol. 142, pp. 44-55.
  13. Liddle, B. 2015. What Are the Carbon Emissions Elasticities for Income and Population? Bridging STIRPAT and EKC via Robust Heterogeneous Panel Estimates. Global Environmental Change, Vol. 31, pp. 62-73.
  15. Liddle, B. & Messinis, G. 2015. Which comes First Urbanization or Economic Growth? Evidence from Heterogeneous Panel Causality Tests. Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 22 (5), pp. 349-355.
  17. Liddle, B. & Lung, S. 2014. Might Electricity Consumption Cause Urbanization Instead: Evidence from Heterogeneous Panel Long-run Causality Tests. Global Environmental Change, Vol. 24, pp. 42-51.
  19. Liddle, B. 2014. Impact of Population, Age Structure, and Urbanization on Greenhouse Gas Emissions/Energy Consumption: Evidence from Macro-level, Cross-country Analyses. Population and Environment, Vol. 35, pp. 286-304.
  21. Liddle, B. & Lung, S. 2013. The long-run causal relationship between transport energy consumption and GDP: Evidence from heterogeneous panel methods robust to cross-sectional dependence. Economic Letters, Vol. 121, pp. 524-527.
  23. Liddle, B. 2015. Urban Transport Pollution: Revisiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve. International Journal for Sustainable Transportation, Vol. 9 (7), pp. 502-508.
  25. Liddle, B. 2013. The energy, economic growth, urbanization nexus across development: Evidence from heterogeneous panel estimates robust to cross-sectional dependence. The Energy Journal, Vol. 34, pp. 223-244.
  27. Liddle, B. 2013. Urban Density and Climate Change: A STIRPAT Analysis using City-level Data. Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 28, pp. 22-29.
  29. Liddle, B. 2013. Population, Affluence, and Environmental Impact Across Development: Evidence from Panel Cointegration Modeling. Environmental Modeling and Software, Vol. 40, pp. 255-266.
  31. Liddle, B. 2012. The importance of energy quality in energy intensive manufacturing: Evidence from panel cointegration and panel FMOLS. Energy Economics, Vol.34, pp. 1819-1825.
  33. O’Neill, B., Liddle, B., Jiang, L., Smith, K., Pachauri, S., Dalton, M., and Fuchs, R. 2012. Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions. The Lancet, Vol. 380 (9837), pp. 157-164.
  35. Liddle, B. 2012. OECD energy intensity: Measures, trends, and convergence. Energy Efficiency, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 583-597.
  37. Liddle, B. 2012. Breaks and Trends in OECD Countries’ Energy-GDP Ratios. Energy Policy, Vol. 45, pp. 502-509.
  39. Liddle, B. 2012. The Systemic, Long-run Relation among Gasoline Demand, Gasoline Price, Income, and Vehicle Ownership in OECD Countries: Evidence from Panel Cointegration and Causality Modeling. Transportation Research D: Transport and Environment, Vol. 17, pp. 327-331.
  41. Liddle, B. 2011. Long-run Projections of Environmental Impact in the OECD: The Importance of Uncertainty and Age Structure. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, Vol. 11, Nos 3/4, pp. 200-217.
  43. Liddle, B. 2011. Consumption-Driven Environmental Impact and Age Structure Change in OECD Countries: A Cointegration-STIRPAT Analysis. Demographic Research, Vol. 24, Article 30, pp. 749-770.
  45. Liddle, B. & Lung, S. 2010. Age-structure, Urbanization, and Climate Change in Developed Countries: Revisiting STIRPAT for Disaggregated Population and Consumption-Related Environmental Impacts. Population and Environment, Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 317-343.
  47. Liddle, B. 2010. Revisiting World Energy Intensity Convergence for Regional Differences. Applied Energy, Vol. 87, pp. 3218-3225.
  49. Liddle, B. 2011. Demographic Influences on Economic Resiliency: Revisiting the Developing Country Growth Collapse of the 1970’s and 1980’s. Journal of International Development, Vol. 23, pp. 476-492.
  51. Liddle, B. 2009. Electricity Intensity Convergence in IEA/OECD Countries: Aggregate and Sectoral Analysis. Energy Policy, Vol. 37, pp. 1470-1478.
  53. Liddle, B. 2009. Long-Run Relation among Transport Demand, Income, and Gasoline Price for the US. Transportation Research D: Transport and Environment, Vol. 14, pp. 73-82.
  55. Liddle, B. 2006. How Linked are Energy and GDP: Reconsidering Energy-GDP Cointegration and Causality for Disaggregated OECD Country Data. International Journal of Energy, Environment and Economics, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 97-113.
  57. Liddle, B. 2004. Demographic Dynamics and Per Capita Environmental Impact: Using Panel Regressions and Household Decompositions to Examine Population and Transport. Population and Environment, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 23-39.
  59. Liddle, B. 2002. Sustainable Development and Globalization in a World with Unequal Starting Points. Review of Urban and Regional Development Studies, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 256-281.
  61. Liddle, B. 2001. Free Trade and the Environment-Development System. Ecological Economics, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 21-36.
  63. Liddle, B. 2000. Population Growth, Age Structure, and Environmental Impact. Population and Environment, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 385-411.
  65. Moavenzadeh, F. & Liddle, B. 1999. Policy and Institutional Measures for Reduction of Transport Generated Pollution. Journal of Urban Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 101-124.
  67. Moavenzadeh, F. & Liddle, B. 1997. The Sustainability of the Urban Environment: A Case for Energy Efficiency in the Building Sector. Journal of Urban Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 5-26.
  69. Liddle, B. 1997. The Privatization Decision and Civil Engineering Projects. Journal of Management in Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 73-78.

Recent Invited Seminars & Workshops/Working Groups

  1. Liddle, B. 2016. The Urbanization, Development, Environment, and Inequality Nexus: Stylized Facts and Empirical Relationships. To be presented at the Asian Development Bank Institute and Sogang University workshop on Urbanization in Asia: Economics and Social Consequences, Seoul, 15-16 December.
  3. Liddle, B. & Sadorsky, P. 2016. How Much Does Increasing Nonfossil Fuels in Electricity Generation Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions? Presented at the 34th USAEE/IAEE North American Conference, Tulsa, OK, 25 October as the USAEE/IAEE 2015 Working Paper Best Paper Award winner.
  5. Liddle, B. 2016. Considering a Population, Urbanization/Density, Energy/Emissions Nexus. Presented at the Institute for Sustainable Resources, University College London, London, 23 March.
  7. Liddle, B. 2016. The Effect of Demographics on the Evolution of Energy Demand. Presented at the KAPSARC workshop on Energy Demand and Efficiency, London, 22 March.
  9. Liddle, B. 2016. Considering a Population, Urbanization/Density, Energy/Emissions Nexus. Presented at the Sustainability Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK, 18 March.
  11. Liddle, B. 2015. Some Empirical Checks for IAM Models: Current Income-Emissions Elasticities and the Displacement of Fossil Fuels and Carbon Emissions. Presented at the IAM Group Meeting, National Center for Atmospheric Research. Boulder, CO, 11 December.
  13. Liddle, B. 2014. Progress toward Energy Intensity Reduction Goal. Presented at 48th APEC Energy Working Group, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, 20 November.
  15. Liddle, B. 2014. APERC Studies on Energy Cooperation in APEC. Presented at Asian Energy Cooperation: 9th International Conference, Irkutsk, Russia, 23 September.
  17. Liddle, B. 2013. Nonlinearities in the GDP-carbon relationship. Presented at the NCAR IAM Group Annual Meeting, National Center for Atmospheric Research. Boulder, CO, 20 August.
  19. Liddle, B. 2012. Impact of Population, Age Structure, and Urbanization on Greenhouse Gas Emissions/Energy Consumption: Evidence from Macro-level, Cross-country Analyses. Presented at the International Seminar on Population Dynamics and the Human Dimensions of Climate Change, Canberra, 27 November.
  21. Liddle, B. 2012. Transport, Urban Density, and the Environment: Energy and Emissions Implications. Presented at the Workshop on Developing a Low Carbon Roadmap for China’s Cities. Beijing, China. 24 September.
  23. Liddle, B. 2012. What are the CO2 Elasticities for Income and Population?: A Robustness Test. Presented at National Center for Atmospheric Research. Boulder, CO, 9 May.
  25. Liddle, B. 2012. Urban Density and Climate Change: A STIRPAT Analysis using City-level Data. Presented at the CUPC-NCAR Workshop on Migration, Urbanization, and Climate Change, Boulder, CO, 7 May.
  27. Liddle, B. 2012. Driving Transport Energy: Urban Density, Gas Price, and Fuel Efficiency. Presented at Florida International University, Department of Earth and Environment seminar series, Miami, 7 March.
Referee Service
AIMS Energy; Ain Shams Engineering Journal; American Sociological Review; Annals of the Association of American Geographers; Applied Economics; Applied Economics Letters; Applied Energy; Asia-Pacific Development Journal; Athens Journal of Business & Economics; Climate Change Economics; Climatic Change; Cross-Cultural Research; Ecological Economics; Ecological Indicators; Economic Modelling; Earth’s Future; Emerging Markets, Finance & Trade; Empirical Economics; Energies; Energy; Energy Economics; Energy Efficiency; Energy Exploration & Exploitation; The Energy Journal; Energy Policy; Engineering Construction & Architectural Management; Environment & Development Economics; Environment, Development & Sustainability; Environmental & Ecological Statistics; Environmental Engineering Science; Environmental Modelling & Software; Environmental Impact Assessment Review; Environmental Modelling & Assessment; Environmental Pollution; Environmental & Resource Economics; Global Environmental Change; International Economic Journal; International Journal of Sustainable Energy; International Journal of Sustainable Transportation; International Review of Economics & Finance; Journal of Cleaner Production; Journal of Construction Engineering & Management; Journal of Energy Engineering; Journal of Environmental Studies & Sciences; Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health; Journal of International Trade & Economic Development; Journal of Population Economics; Journal of Regional Science; Journal of Reviews on Global Economics; Management of Environmental Quality; The Open Cybernetics & Systemics Journal; PLOS ONE; Population & Environment; Progress in Nuclear Energy; Regional Science & Urban Economics; Resources, Conservation & Recycling; Science; Society & Natural Resources; SpringerPlus; Sustainability; Theoretical Economics Letters; Tourism Management; Transportation Research A: Policy & Practice; Transportation Research D: Transport & Environment; Water Resources & Economics.
Email: esilbt@nus.edu.sg
Phone: (+65) 6516-7080
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